مفاهيم سياسية عالمية

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حكومة ارستقراطية

Aristocracy

- A government or state ruled by an aristocracy, elite, or privileged upper class.
- Government by those considered to be the best or most able people in the state



هيئة تشريعية ذات مجلسين
Bicameral Legislature

- A legislature that comprises two chambers. The US Congress is a bicameral legislature ; its two chambers are the House of Representative and the Senate



الرأسمالية
Capitalism

- The economic system in which all or most of the means of production and distribution, as land, factories, railroads, etc., are privately owned and operated for profit, originally under fully competitive conditions: it has been generally characterized by a tendency toward concentration of wealth, and, in its later phase, by the growth of great corporations, increased governmental control, etc.

- An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.

- Economic system in which (1) private ownership of property exists; (2) aggregates of property or capital provide income for the individuals or firms that accumulated it and own it; (3) individuals and firms are relatively free to compete with others for their own economic gain; (4) the profit motive is basic to economic life



جرائم الحرب
Crimes of war (War crimes)

- Any of various crimes, such as genocide or the mistreatment of prisoners of war, committed during a war and considered in violation of the conventions of warfare

- Crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements or, as in the case of genocide, are offenses against humanity.

- Serious violations of the laws applicable in armed conflict (Also    known as International humanitarian law )giving rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of such conduct includes "murder, the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps", "the murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war", the killing of prisoners, "the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages, and any devastation not justified by military, or civilian
necessity".

ديمقراطية
Democracy

- Government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.

- Government in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives.

عقوبات اقتصادية
Economic sanctions

- The imposition of international economic boycotts and embargoes.

-  Any actions taken by one nation or group of nations to harm the economy of another nation or group, often to force a political change.

- Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas.


تطهير عرقي

Ethnic cleansing

- The elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration.

- Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas.

فاشية
Fascism

- A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.
فيدرالية
Federalism

- A political system in which authority is shared between a central government and  states or regional governments


تدخل إنساني
Humanitarian intervention
- A term used to describe when a state or group of states employs military force within another country's territory to protect civilians from atrocities, such as civil war, starvation or genocide.
- Entry into a country of the armed forces of another country or international organization with the aim of protecting citizens from persecution or the violation of their human rights. The creation of safe havens in north and south Iraq following the Gulf War, and intervention in Somalia, Haiti, Liberia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Sierra Leone have seen (mostly American led) military operations to protect certain groups in the population.

محكمة العدل الدولية
International Court of Justice

- The principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Located in The Hague, the Netherlands, it was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations.

- The chief judicial agency of the United Nations, established in 1945 to decide disputes arising between nations.

المحكمة الجنائية الدولية
International Criminal Court

- An independent, permanent court that tries persons accused of the most serious crimes of international concerns, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
 
القانون الإنساني الدولي
 International Humanitarian Law (IHL)

  - The law of war that is outlined in the Geneva Conventions and other documents. It defines the conduct and responsibilities of nations and individuals engaged in warfare.
IHL seeks to protect civilians from aggression.


ليبرالية
Liberalism

- Advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.


هيئة تشريعية
Legislature

- A deliberative body of persons, usually elective, who are empowered to make, change, or repeal the laws of a country or state; the branch of government having the power to make laws, as distinguished from the executive and judicial branches of government.

نظام برلماني
Parliamentary System

- Representative democracy where political power is vested in an elected legislature.


السياسة

Politics

- The art and science of government and conducting the affairs of a state


جمهورية

Republic

- A political order whose head of state is not a monarch and in modern times is usually a president.
- a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.


فصل السلطات
Separation of Powers

- Division of the legislative, executive, and judicial functions of government among separate and independent bodies. Such a separation limits the possibility of arbitrary excesses by government, since the sanction of all three branches is required for the making, executing, and administering of laws
- the principle or system of vesting in separate branches the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of a government.


الاشتراكية
Socialism

- A social system in which the means of producing and distributing goods are owned collectively and political power is exercised by the whole community.
- A theory or system of social organization  that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.


حكومة دينية
Theocracy

- A government ruled by or subject to religious authority.
- A system of government by priests claiming a divine commission.


الشمولية
Totalitarianism

A political system where the state, usually under the power of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
- Form of government that subordinates all aspects of its citizens' lives to the authority of the state, with a single charismatic leader as the ultimate authority.


هيئة تشريعية ذات مجلس واحد
Unicameral Legislature

A legislature that comprises chamber.

الإعلان العالمي لحقوق الإنسان
Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

- The Declaration was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 and drafted by a committee chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. The Declaration includes 30 articles that define civil and political rights (including right to life, liberty, and fair trial) as well as  definitions of economic, social, and cultural rights, all of which owed by the UN member states to those under their jurisdiction.